This is an excellent baby monitor that uses many of the same principles as the Nanit, Nest Cam, and Cocoon Cam. It uses a cute and innovative video camera on a flexible stick that can hook around the top of the crib, bend into an upright stand, or mount onto the wall with an included mount. This versatility is great for the different stages of development, and it can be flexibly used as a security camera or baby monitor. For new babies that aren't old enough to stand up and grab the camera, it can be mounted right on the crib's upper rail, giving you the perfect view onto your sleeping baby. Then for child safety, it can be moved to the wall or on top of a nearby dresser, to stay out of baby's curious hands and give you a good vantage point into the crib. The camera hooks into your existing home wifi, and you use your smart phone to connect (there's a cell phone app for the iPhone or Android). If the camera and your phone are both connected to your home wifi, you will get real-time streaming within your home, and you can turn on privacy mode to keep the signal from traveling to the cloud for processing (i.e., it will stay in your local area network, the signal never leaves your home). This makes the stream much faster, but also makes sure that it will still work during an internet outage. When you leave your house and connect to your cellular carrier or to a different wifi, the camera's signal will travel through Amazon's cloud computing service then get bounced down to your phone's app. The cloud computing does two things. One is that it makes it possible for you to remotely connect to see your live camera wherever you are, as long as you have your phone. Second, it will analyze the sound to check for crying and send you an alert when any fussing is detected. And it seems pretty specific to crying, rather than sending alerts whenever there is a little other noise (like a door closing). It also saves little 30-second video clips from when the crying was detected, so you can go back (like with a DV-R) and see what was going on. Nice touch! And that cloud service is completely free to you, paid for by Lollipop. The digital video is streamed in high definition (720p), and we found that it has generally good video and digital audio sound quality. Even the night vision is really pretty great. One of the features we really liked, and we didn't find on any other wifi baby monitor, was the ability to stream just the audio overnight (audio mode for night nursery). So your smart phone screen can be off, and you can just use it as a basic audio-only monitor; that's a nice feature to save your phone's battery life and keep the bright screen from turning on in the middle of the night. In our testing, this worked really nicely, but it's worth noting that it only works in this mode when you are on the same wifi connection as the baby camera (i.e., you're at home). We found the video quality to be very high, though the "real-time streaming" did sometimes get a little delayed by a few seconds, especially when streaming through the cloud to our iPhone on a 4G connection. A few cool things worth mentioning. Mounting was easy, no more drilling into the crib or using adhesives. You can buy a separate sensor for about $55 that will tell you some additional information about your baby's room, like room temperature sensors, and air quality and humidity sensors; it connects to the camera via Bluetooth. You can also play sounds for your baby through the app, like white noise, trickling water, or even the sound of the vacuum. You can also setup multiple cameras to view on the same app (not at the same time though). So there are tons of great features here, and overall we thought it worked really well in our testing. Drawbacks? Well, it is a little pricey coming in around $150, just like the Cocoon Cam. It also can get pretty laggy when streaming through cellular networks, but that's not really Lollipop's fault. Note that the one currently available on Amazon as of July appears to be a knock-off Lollipop camera, in the meantime, you might need to purchase one directly through the Lollipop website. This camera deserves a much higher spot on our list, but we're worried about where you can actually get a genuine version of the monitor - we're in touch with the company and will update when we hear some news. So overall, this is a great new baby monitor with wifi that you will very likely be pleased with. We'll update this article in 6-months to talk about long-term reliability. Interested? You can check out the Lollipop Baby Monitor here.
If initial impressions mean anything, this is definitely one of the biggest bang-for-the-buck baby monitors on the market. It has some fantastic features, and is offered at a great price point at around $70! Here are some of the best features: first, it has very clear daytime video and crystal clear sound. Using 2.4Ghz communications, like most others on this list, it does a great job connecting, staying connected, and providing superb sound quality. It also is expandable with additional cameras - up to 4 additional cameras to be exact, which means you can really get one of these everywhere. Need one in the playroom, nursery, by the bassinet? Having up to 4 cameras connected is awesome, and the base station provides the easy ability to switch which camera you're looking at. Of course, it only comes with one out of the box, but you can buy extra cameras for about $40 each. We also liked that there is no complicated setup like with some of the IP cameras on this list, which means that there is no connecting to your internet router, or trying to get a phone app to connect. Of course, that also means you can only watch from the base station, not on your phone. About that base station. You can control whether you want digital video and sound, or sound only, and you can also remotely zoom in on your baby as needed (only 2 zoom levels though), but you cannot remotely pan or tilt the camera. There is a 2-way intercom (twoway talk) so you can talk to baby, or play one of the included lullabies. With the screen on, we were able to get the base station's battery to last for about 7 hours, and with just sound the battery lasted for about 11 hours. So definitely long enough for nap times during the day! Like many of the other ones on this list, you can put it into standby mode and have it voice activate automatically when the camera's microphone hears something in the room (like a fussy baby). We thought this feature worked really well and wasn't overly-sensitive and false alarming all night, which could get really annoying. So there are a lot of things to love about this baby video monitor. With such a low price, the feature list is obviously limited. We also thought the nighttime video quality really left something to be desired. We kept trying to increase the brightness to help, but it still was pretty poor relative to other units on this list. Finally, when we first reviewed this system we purchased 3 of them. After 1.5 years, only 1 of them is still working perfectly, 1 of them is a bit glitchy from time to time, and the other one had a screen failure. So we see some reliability and consistency issues with these baby video monitors, and that's the primary reason that it's not higher up on our list. In any event, we do recommend this camera, especially given the overall bang for the buck. But given how cheap it is, don't expect any miracles, or to be buying something to last you until you have grandchildren!
With a 1,000-foot range and DECT technology, the VTech Safe & Sound Digital Audio relays sound with excellent clarity. Two-way communication offers a way to calm a baby when he or she is waking up or trying to fall asleep. It also includes a night light for late-night feedings. The digital display indicates signal strength and power/battery life. This monitor offers a full range of alarms when your baby wakes — audio, indicator lights, and vibration.
The Nest boasts some impressive hardware specs, such as true 1080p/30fps video and a 3-megapixel camera sensor. Setting up the Nest Cam specifically to look in on a 2-year-old at night, we found the video quality on Nest's camera to be sharper and more detailed than on any baby video monitor we tested. The Nest Cam includes push-to-talk features as well as alerts triggered by motion or sounds. And when your child is past the age when you need a nighttime monitor, you can repurpose the Nest Cam to check in on other parts of your home.
To test connectivity, we put the handheld unit and the camera in neighboring rooms with 30 feet between them. We looked for lag, choppiness, and changes in the video or sound quality. While we rated it separately, we also did tests to estimate each baby cam’s maximum indoor range. Each camera we tested has a range of 100 feet or more, which is enough for an average-size home.
iBaby makes a really confusing range of baby monitors. From cheapest to most expensive this includes the iBaby Monitors M2, M2S, and M2 Plus, iBaby M6, M6T, and M6S, and the new iBaby M7. The M2 series is usually under $100 and is pretty poorly reviewed overall. The M6 series is usually about $125 and is decently reviewed. Finally, the new M7 is brand new and only differs from the M6S in that it has a smell detector and night sky projector that can shine the moon and stars onto the ceiling (our review of the M7 is above). There's truly a lot to love about the iBaby M6S. It looks great, is pretty easy to setup, and has a ton of appealing features. Some highlights are that it uses 1080p high definition video, it senses room temperature and humidity levels, has an air quality sensor (measures the presence of volatile organic compounds or VOCs in the nursery), is dual band wifi compatible (2.4 and 5GHz), and a two-way intercom. It also can record HD videos, remotely pan (rotate) and tilt up/down, and you can setup alerts for motion, sound, and VOCs (from 1 to 4 with 4 being best). So it basically has everything that might be on your list of baby monitor essential features, and we were really excited to set it up. Out of the box, we found it easy to download the app to our smart phone (Android or Apple), connect to the monitor and connect it to wifi, and get things up and running. A couple notes here - first, your wifi password needs to be shorter than 32 characters or the app won't accept it, and second, there is no way to manually set an IP address for the camera. When we used it on our home wifi network, we found that the images were clear and decently fast (low lag), and the night vision was high-quality and not too grainy. We especially liked the pan and tilt features from the app, which allows you to move the camera's view angle around without going into the nursery (and it uses a cool screen-swipe gesture to do it). Once we left our home's wifi connection and tried to connect to the camera from a 4G LTE or a different wifi network, that's when we started to run into problems. It was choppy and laggy, which to be honest is what we expected when attempting to stream 1080p HD video outside of your home network. So we changed the resolution settings on the app (Settings - Display Settings - Resolution) to downgrade it to a lower quality stream; that seemed to help a bit. We also had difficulty connecting to the camera at times, whether we were at home or elsewhere, which was one of the more frustrating things about the iBaby Monitor M6S. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to work pretty well, and we confirmed their accuracy with a separate thermometer and hygrometer (they were pretty decent in accuracy). For the two-way intercom, the speaker in the camera seemed pretty poor quality so it was hard to hear my voice when attempting to speak to (or sing to) our baby. Finally, we had some issues with alerts coming through to the app as intended. We setup the temperature, humidity, and VOC alerts, and had really intermittent alerts when we tested them out. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to be reading just fine, they just weren't reliably triggering an alert when they deviated from a range. For example, we set a temperature alert for 80 degrees then blew a hair dryer at the camera; it warmed way up, but the alert wasn't triggered, so that was frustrating. We didn't test the VOC sensor, though one could imagine you could open up a can of paint next to the camera and see if it sends an alert. So overall, we have a decent wifi baby monitor that has some excellent features but also leaves a lot to be desired in the reliability department. Interested? You can check out the iBaby M6S Baby Monitor here. 
This is the #1 best baby monitor on our list, and on many of the major baby product websites. It's the Cadillac (or Lexus?) of baby monitors and has tons of fantastic features. In our testing, we found the video display to be very high quality during both daytime and nighttime conditions. The audio was very high quality as well, and the two-way intercom lets you talk to your baby or sing them a little goodnight lullaby without getting out of bed. We also thought it had great range and good battery life when it's not plugged in. We took it into the back and front yards, without any issues with reception. Bells and whistles abound: this unit has the remotely adjustable pan/tilt/zoom camera, integrated two-way audio intercom system (just push the talk button), baby room temperature monitor, the ability to do digital audio only (screen off for nighttime), and encrypted wireless communication. That adjustable pan allows you to pivot the camera remotely up to 270-degrees left-right, and the adjustable tilt allows you to pivot the camera up to 120-degrees up and down. Super convenient when the camera is positioned close up and your baby moves to the other side of the crib, or the camera gets accidentally bumped or repositioned during the day. The Infant Optics DXR-8 video baby monitor is also expandable up to 4 cameras to place in various locations in your home, and you just press a button on the receiver to toggle between the various camera locations. You can't see all of them at once on the screen of the handheld monitor, but it was easy enough to toggle through the different camera feeds. We also found that the menu is very user-friendly and it's easy to take advantage of all the advanced functions. But you will pay for all this greatness, coming in around $165-175. There is also a relatively inexpensive add-on wide angle lens (see the wide angle lens here) that gives you a much wider viewing angle (170-degrees, which is nearly the same angle as your eyes) to accommodate up-close scenes (like if you place the camera along the edge of the crib). Overall, this is a truly excellent, highly reliable baby monitor with some great features, a great reputation, and is the perfect trade-off for screen size versus portability and battery life. The parents who tested this baby monitor for us fell in love with it, and all had great things to say in their reviews, including its reliability, quality, ease of use, and the accuracy of the temperature display. We definitely can't say that for all of the baby monitors on this list! There is only one con that we found with this baby monitor: an audible beep when you turn the unit off (only on the base unit, not on the camera), which might wake your partner when you quickly turn the unit on/off just to check on your baby in the middle of the night. But that's pretty minor and only one of our testing parents brought it up in their review. Also, according to our Facebook followers the newest version no longer has that beep (we're getting a new testing unit now). In our opinion, this baby monitor passed our testing with flying colors, and we think it's worth every penny! Interested? You can check out the Infant Optics DXR-8 here. Want something about half the price with fewer features? Check out the earlier version of this baby monitor: the Infant Optics DXR-5, also a great option for a little less cash.
iBaby makes a really confusing range of baby monitors. From cheapest to most expensive this includes the iBaby Monitors M2, M2S, and M2 Plus, iBaby M6, M6T, and M6S, and the new iBaby M7. The M2 series is usually under $100 and is pretty poorly reviewed overall. The M6 series is usually about $125 and is decently reviewed. Finally, the new M7 is brand new and only differs from the M6S in that it has a smell detector and night sky projector that can shine the moon and stars onto the ceiling (our review of the M7 is above). There's truly a lot to love about the iBaby M6S. It looks great, is pretty easy to setup, and has a ton of appealing features. Some highlights are that it uses 1080p high definition video, it senses room temperature and humidity levels, has an air quality sensor (measures the presence of volatile organic compounds or VOCs in the nursery), is dual band wifi compatible (2.4 and 5GHz), and a two-way intercom. It also can record HD videos, remotely pan (rotate) and tilt up/down, and you can setup alerts for motion, sound, and VOCs (from 1 to 4 with 4 being best). So it basically has everything that might be on your list of baby monitor essential features, and we were really excited to set it up. Out of the box, we found it easy to download the app to our smart phone (Android or Apple), connect to the monitor and connect it to wifi, and get things up and running. A couple notes here - first, your wifi password needs to be shorter than 32 characters or the app won't accept it, and second, there is no way to manually set an IP address for the camera. When we used it on our home wifi network, we found that the images were clear and decently fast (low lag), and the night vision was high-quality and not too grainy. We especially liked the pan and tilt features from the app, which allows you to move the camera's view angle around without going into the nursery (and it uses a cool screen-swipe gesture to do it). Once we left our home's wifi connection and tried to connect to the camera from a 4G LTE or a different wifi network, that's when we started to run into problems. It was choppy and laggy, which to be honest is what we expected when attempting to stream 1080p HD video outside of your home network. So we changed the resolution settings on the app (Settings - Display Settings - Resolution) to downgrade it to a lower quality stream; that seemed to help a bit. We also had difficulty connecting to the camera at times, whether we were at home or elsewhere, which was one of the more frustrating things about the iBaby Monitor M6S. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to work pretty well, and we confirmed their accuracy with a separate thermometer and hygrometer (they were pretty decent in accuracy). For the two-way intercom, the speaker in the camera seemed pretty poor quality so it was hard to hear my voice when attempting to speak to (or sing to) our baby. Finally, we had some issues with alerts coming through to the app as intended. We setup the temperature, humidity, and VOC alerts, and had really intermittent alerts when we tested them out. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to be reading just fine, they just weren't reliably triggering an alert when they deviated from a range. For example, we set a temperature alert for 80 degrees then blew a hair dryer at the camera; it warmed way up, but the alert wasn't triggered, so that was frustrating. We didn't test the VOC sensor, though one could imagine you could open up a can of paint next to the camera and see if it sends an alert. So overall, we have a decent wifi baby monitor that has some excellent features but also leaves a lot to be desired in the reliability department. Interested? You can check out the iBaby M6S Baby Monitor here. 
Baby monitors shouldn't be used as a substitute for adult supervision. They should be considered as an extra set of ears—and, in some cases, eyes—that help parents and caregivers keep tabs on sleeping babies. Using one can alert you to a situation before it becomes serious, for example, if your baby is coughing, crying, or making some other sign of distress. Experts warn that you can't rely on a monitor to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
The Philips Avent SCD630 earned a 4th place rank, but it is the number 1 ranked dedicated monitor we tested. It has the longest range and highest ease of use scores for the dedicated options and the best score for sound clarity out of all the monitors we tested in this review. The Philips has lullabies, a nightlight, 2-way talk to baby, automatic screen wakeup/sleep, sound activation, 2x zoom, and a temperature sensor. While it struggles to offer true to life images and has fewer features than most of the competition, it is hard to deny that this plug and play monitor is a simple solution for video baby monitoring, and it gets the job done with little fuss and only a small learning curve. However, if you want a remote-controlled camera, you should look elsewhere, as this one is manual with a smaller field of view.
Every parent we spoke to agreed. A video monitor is the way to go. It’s the difference between getting up to check on your baby because you thought you heard a noise or glancing at a screen to see if you really need to get out of bed. Video monitors are useful well into the toddler years, too. That screen can help you decide whether you need to step in and comfort your child, or if you can wait out a tantrum.
Wireless systems use radio frequencies that are designated by governments for unlicensed use. For example, in North America frequencies near 49 MHz, 902 MHz or 2.4 GHz are available. While these frequencies are not assigned to powerful television or radio broadcasting transmitters, interference from other wireless devices such as cordless telephones, wireless toys, computer wireless networks, radar, Smart Power Meters and microwave ovens is possible.
Baby video monitors with all the latest bells and whistles cost around $200, sometimes more depending on the feature set. However, you can find solid baby monitors for $100 to $150 less than that, though you'll sacrifice on video resolution and some features. Cloud storage can add to the cost of a baby monitor in the form of an ongoing subscription, though that feature is usually optional.

With a baby monitor, you're able to keep tabs on your little one(s) during nap time or nighttime, and still go about your day. Generally, the number one benefit provided by the best baby monitors are peace of mind, followed closely by the benefits of security and convenience. Plus, since homes and habits vary, a baby monitor may have additional uses, like allowing you to monitor how long it takes your preschooler to fall asleep, keeping track of playtime, or even using it as a pet cam.
When shopping for baby monitor, try to choose a product that offers both quality and security. For best results, opt for a model that offers both audio and video capabilities. You should be able to see and hear your baby in real time and also talk back to them as needed. Baby monitors can vary dramatically in quality, but today's models offer stunning HD video that ensures you can see your baby's surroundings with crystal clarity. Purchase the best quality you can afford, and enjoy the peace of mind that comes from knowing that your baby is closely within reach.
The Nest boasts some impressive hardware specs, such as true 1080p/30fps video and a 3-megapixel camera sensor. Setting up the Nest Cam specifically to look in on a 2-year-old at night, we found the video quality on Nest's camera to be sharper and more detailed than on any baby video monitor we tested. The Nest Cam includes push-to-talk features as well as alerts triggered by motion or sounds. And when your child is past the age when you need a nighttime monitor, you can repurpose the Nest Cam to check in on other parts of your home.
This is the second most expensive baby monitor on our list (coming in just under $250), and there is a lot to love about it. First, it has the Samsung reliability and quality control, making it a long-lasting baby monitor that isn't likely to drop signals in the middle of the night. Second, it has a large 5" display with high definition 720p resolution. Third, it has the two-way intercom that allows you to not only hear but also to speak to your baby. Fourth, it has automatic voice activation so if your baby fusses or says something, the screen will turn on and alert you that something's up. It also has a pan-tilt-zoom camera, selectable music/lullabies and a night light on the camera (you can turn on/off remotely), and is expandable up to 4 cameras with just the one display. With all these awesome features, why is it second on our list? In our side-by-side comparison of the Infant Optics and this Samsung, we found the Infant Optics to come out ahead in several regards. First, let's talk about a few advantages of the Samsung: it has a larger screen than the Infant Optics, selectable music, the nightlight, and is expandable up to 4 cameras that you can view simultaneously on the single screen (you can buy the extra baby cameras here). That's a lot of great features. However, when we compare it to something like the Infant Optics that has the same price, there are several disadvantages relative to the Infant Optics and other baby monitors on this list. First, even though Samsung SEW3043W Brightview HD monitor touts a robust 900-ft range, we noticed that when we went outside the signal dropped repeatedly in our back or front yards; it was quite good, however, when going up to the third floor or basement while still inside the house. So there are some definite limitations on the range and signal connectivity. Second, the Infant Optics has the baby room temperature monitor, which we found useful during a few summer nights when we didn't realize how warm it was getting in the baby's room. Third, even though the Infant Optics screen is smaller, we found it to be a bit faster and more responsive as a touch screen, and a bit brighter as a monitor. The two night vision capabilities were about the same. With all these limitations, we're surprised that the Samsung is quite a bit more expensive than the Infant Optics.
The Philips Avent DECT SCD570/10 is a sleek looking, quality sound device that has a more extended range than much of the sound competition. It has a battery life of over 30 hours and excellent sound clarity for true-to-life sounds. The nursery unit has a nightlight, lullabies, mic sensitivity function, and a 2way talk to baby feature providing the most popular features for today's demanding parents.
The best-selling video baby monitor on Amazon is the highly-rated Infant Optics DXR-8 Video Baby Monitor — this impressive product boasts more than 10,000 5-star reviews! Though it’s a little higher in price than other products, the Infant Optics camera’s interchangeable lens system, remote adjust feature, and reliability make it a top pick for parents.
If you aren't interested in having a video baby monitor, the VTech DM221 is the very best audio-only monitor you can buy. You can listen in on your baby or get vibration and light-based alerts when the monitor is in silent mode. The five LED lights indicate the level of sound so you can tell whether your baby is cooing quietly or shrieking for mom and dad.
The VTech DM221 audio monitor is the best choice in the category—it's consistently a best seller at multiple retailers, with thousands of positive customer reviews. Losing video is a major sacrifice, of course, but we could see this monitor being a good choice for parents of toddlers who are considering replacing a failing monitor, or people who want a monitor only so they can hear their kid crying out from a distant bedroom.

To save on battery life, some audio/video models only turn on when the baby makes an unusual motion or sound. Some models come with a motion-detector pad that fits under the crib sheet. This type of motion sensor is intended to prevent SIDS. Sensitive enough to detect changes in breathing, an alarm sounds if there is no movement after 20 minutes. However, if the baby simply rolls off the pad, the alarm may sound.
Ease of use may not seem like a big deal because once you know how to use something, it won't seem that hard, and after you use it for a while it can feel intuitive even if it isn't. However, with this type of product, there can be a learning curve depending on what kind you choose and how many features it has. While the dedicated monitors were plug in and go options that even grandma can manage, some of them took a little more skill to navigate and learn. The Wi-Fi options, on the other hand, do require some knowledge of technology and the way apps work. With all of them, you will need to set up the camera with your computer or another device, and you will need to set up an account and be able to manage things like Wi-Fi passwords and various settings inside the application. While this may seem like no big deal to some parents, it could be challenging for those that are less tech-savvy.
General Usability: This one is two-fold. First we wanted to make sure each monitor could perform under bright, dim, and no light; and pick up even the faintest sounds. Then we looked at how easy it was to use the monitor. Could we adjust the screen brightness, or were we going to be half-blinded when we picked it up at 1AM? Was the monitor voice-activated, or does it pick up white noise in the background? How sensitive were the alarms, and did they sound like a baby-waking screech or a soft ping?

This monitor comes with a 2.4" color screen that connects to its camera over a secure, interference-free connection, providing you with video up to 900 feet away. It boasts a two-way talk system and night vision, as well as several extra features like temperature monitoring, voice-activation mode, 2x zoom and more. The manufacturer doesn’t specify how long the battery on this video baby monitor lasts, but reviewers say you can get around six hours of continuous use from it.
So we recommend choosing a baby monitor that uses a different frequency band from your cordless phone and other wireless products in your home. The band that your cordless phone operates on should be printed somewhere on it. Remember that interference can vary widely depending on where you live, the electronic devices you have at home, and the ones your neighbors have. If, for example, you have a 2.4 GHz wireless product, such as an older cordless phone, choose a baby monitor that doesn't operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency band. People with newer phones that use DECT will have fewer issues with interference.
Baby monitors are just one way to keep track of your little one. For newborns, the Snoo Smart Sleeper is a bed that gently rocks your baby for better sleep, and connects to an app on your phone that lets you receive alerts when your little one needs attention. The Owlet Smart Sock 2, meanwhile, is a connected pulse oximeter that allows you to check on your baby's vitals any time through an app, and will notify you automatically if there's a problem. The Sproutling from Fisher Price is a motion and heart rate sensor that straps to the back of your baby's calf and collects data while he or she sleeps.
Many of the baby monitors we've tested are internet-connected, letting you watch infant with your phone or tablet through an app just as if you were checking a home security camera. Because of this, you might not actually get a standalone display to go along with the camera. They aren't out of the question, however; some camera-only baby monitors offer viewers as an add-on or in a bundle. And if there aren't any available, you can simply get an inexpensive tablet like the Amazon Fire to use as a dedicated viewer.
It’s hard not to like the crystal-clear picture you get on this monitor’s 7-inch screen (the biggest screen on this list!). Its standalone camera can be moved from room to room and will remotely pan, tilt and zoom. Given the cost, this monitor is best if you want full control of the nursery environment. It syncs with the Smart Nursery humidifier and the Dream Machine sound and light machine. Once connected, you can turn on lullabies, project lights onto the ceiling and increase the room’s humidity all from your monitor.
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