It may surprise you to hear that simply being able to last through the night, unplugged, with the display off, qualifies as exceptional battery life for a baby monitor. The Infant Optics was one of the only monitors in our testing that could easily do that, and then last a while longer the next day. That alone puts it head-and-shoulders above many other monitors we tested.
The LeFun C2 720P Wi-Fi earned a 3rd place rank thanks to high scores for range and battery life, and impressive results for video quality and features. This monitor earned a Best Value for Wi-Fi monitors for its budget-friendly list price that is the least expensive in the group and its higher rank. This means you can get a great, top performing monitor, at a reasonable price. The LeFun has motion detection, sound activation, 2-way talk to baby, zoom, and a remote-controlled camera with real pan and tilt capabilities. The downside to this camera is a lag time when using the pan and tilt feature, and it is a little harder to use than the other Wi-Fi options we tested, but given the low price, we suspect most parents will forgive these flaws.
Before buying or registering for a baby monitor (or any wireless product), be sure you can return or exchange it in case you can't get rid of interference or other problems. If you receive a monitor as a baby-shower gift and know where it was purchased, try it before the retailer's return period ends. Return policies are often explained on store receipts, on signs near registers, or on the merchant's website. But if the return clock has run out, don't feel defeated. Persistence and politeness will often get you an exception to the policy. Keep the receipt and the original packaging.
You can expect to pay between $30 and $200 for a dedicated video baby monitor, with most branded units costing around $100 on average. Units that allow you to remotely reposition the camera with pan-tilt-zoom functionality are more expensive than those with a fixed view. Wi-Fi video baby monitors don't generally cost extra, because the lack of a specific parent unit balances out the costs of adding Wi-Fi functionality.
So we recommend choosing a baby monitor that uses a different frequency band from your cordless phone and other wireless products in your home. The band that your cordless phone operates on should be printed somewhere on it. Remember that interference can vary widely depending on where you live, the electronic devices you have at home, and the ones your neighbors have. If, for example, you have a 2.4 GHz wireless product, such as an older cordless phone, choose a baby monitor that doesn't operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency band. People with newer phones that use DECT will have fewer issues with interference.
Project Nursery offers a variety of monitor options that include fantastic features like remote camera control, two-way communication, motion, sound and temperature alerts and the ability to play white noise or lullabies. But what we like best about this one is that it comes with a traditional 5-inch screen monitor and a 1.5-inch mini video monitor that you can wear like a bracelet. Both monitors have a long battery life, too.
The Arlo Baby camera, which comes dressed as an adorable green bunny, connects to your wireless internet and connects to your phone via the associated app. It streams 1080-pixel video footage, even at night, and has an 8x zoom to let you see exactly what’s going on in the nursery. There’s a two-way talk feature, night light and smart music player, as well as an air sensor and baby crying alert, letting you keep a watchful eye on your little one.
Like other systems, the Dropcam Echo allows you to put up more than one camera and monitor different rooms. The manufacturer says the Dropcam Echo automatically detects motion and sound, and you can get an e-mail message or notification on your smart phone or iPad when something changes in the baby's room. Dropcam will store your video feed for either a weekly or monthly fee.
During our tests, we found ourselves among the fraction of buyers having problems with the display on the DXR-8. Our first test unit worked fine out of the box, but after a couple of hours running on battery, the display became distorted and nothing would fix it. Likewise, you’ll find a few complaints on Amazon of users experiencing dead pixels after about a year of use (here’s one and here’s another). The good news: Those folks reported that Infant Optics replaced their monitors even though some were out of warranty. In fact, the company consistently receives decent feedback on customer service. Infant Optics quickly replaced our faulty unit (but as a media inquiry, that’s not comparable to typical customer service), and the new unit has performed fine.
Here is a great bang-for-the-buck best baby monitor that has some great features. It is sold under two different brand names, one is Babysense, and the other is Smilism. We purchased both, and they were basically exactly the same other than the different logos. We're assuming they are the same company selling under two different brand names, but we can't be sure. Let's begin with the "bang" part of bang-for-the-buck. This baby monitor has a lot of good features, including two-way intercom, room temperature monitoring, "eco" mode that keeps the screen off until it hears your baby make a sound, remote zoom, and a few music (lullaby) options. It is also expandable up to 4 cameras, using the same base unit. From the base unit, you can cycle through which camera you want to view at any given time; you cannot view them all simultaneously on the same base unit (like picture-in-picture). We really liked the eco mode, and also liked that on the top of the unit there is a little flashing light to reassure you that it's on during eco mode, even though the screen is off. So there are a lot of great features here, especially for the low price of only about $75! That's right, only about $75, and each add-on camera is about $40. So there's a great deal for a nicely featured camera. What are the missing features? Well, the remote tilt and pan function was not included, so you have to position the camera the right way in your baby's room or you're out of luck in the middle of the night. Second, in our testing it took a bit too much time to cycle between each of the baby cameras: the screen would turn white and you need to wait several seconds for the other camera to show on the screen. This same white screen happens during start-up of the unit. We also weren't totally impressed by the range of the base unit on this Babysense video baby monitor. It works great if you're 1-2 rooms away, but if you go upstairs or several rooms away, the signal drops intermittently. Even with those little downfalls, this is a great budget pick for a well-featured baby video monitor with some good reliability, enough to put it up at this spot on our best-of list. Note that Babysense also makes a great new under-mattress movement monitor as well. We've been using it for 10 months now and it's still going strong with no issues. Interested? You can check out the Babysense Baby Monitor here.
Video baby monitors are simple, inexpensive tools for watching your child, and HD video is not a necessity for this task. While some baby monitors have excellent video, even those with lower quality video are suitable for watching your infant. Screen resolution does not necessarily mean good image quality, so we didn't use it as a point of comparison, relying only on video performance as observed in our tests.
The iBaby M6 is your ultimate nursery assistant! This adorably sleek model wins our top pick for the best baby monitor with wi-fi. Not only can you keep tabs on baby through your iPhone or tablet, the iBaby monitor also allows you to live-stream footage to as many as four people (Hello, Grandma!), take, store and share photos of baby, and speak or sing to baby via two-way communication. Parents can remotely control the camera so that it swivels, tilts and pans for a larger viewing area. Baby’s first robot? We think so!
The HelloBaby might be a standard monitor, but it excels at the basics. It scored better than some of the more expensive WiFi monitors in picture clarity, and was hands-down the easiest to use. Just open the box, plug in the two devices, and you’re ready to go. No difficult packaging to tear through, and no account setup or device pairing necessary. Our testers had it up in running in less than 3 minutes each time.
If you’re absolutely sure you want a Wi-Fi–enabled baby monitor, we found the iBaby M6S to be the best option of the three we tested (the others were the Arlo Baby by Netgear and the Evoz Glow Baby Monitor). The iBaby offers the benefits common to most Wi-Fi monitors and is slightly easier to set up than its competitors. But like its competitors, it shares the significant drawbacks, noted above, that we believe make RF monitors a better choice overall.
Parents who want to both hear and see their baby will naturally opt for a video monitor. Video monitors are particularly great for those with older babies learning to stand in their cribs or toddlers transitioning to a bed who'd much rather play than sleep. They're also a good pick for parents who need to keep tabs on more than one child, as many video monitors will allow the parent unit to toggle between multiple cameras.
Don't be fooled by its cute looks and adorable green bunny ears: Netgear's Arlo Baby is a very capable baby monitor that delivers sharp video of your nursery to your smartphone. The Arlo Baby includes features such as night vision, temperature and air quality sensors, a color-changing nightlight and a speaker that can play lullabies. All of this is very easy to manage thanks to a well-designed mobile app.
* Guest Accounts: need to allow guest accounts for grandparents, but absolutely need the ability to turn OFF the microphone for those accounts. The camera is only in the baby's room, but the microphone extends as far as sound travels, and you probably don't want your mother-in-law listening to every discussion in your home. This is a HUGE security feature that is a requirement for anything with guest accounts
Correct me if I am wrong, but both Surface Pro and Surface 2 laptop have USB 3.0. But the new Surface headphones have USB-C for charging. If that is correct, why would MS make computing devices with incompatible USB ports? You wouldn't be able to charge the headphones on either device. Unless the headphones come with an adapter, it seems dumb to me.
This year alone we have seen over 30 new baby monitors enter the market, most of which are low-quality products being mass produced in China. They are cheap and might even work well for a few weeks or months, but give them a little more time and they will start to have all sorts of issues. We've seen way too many melting chargers, malfunctioning screens, and units that are completely dead after a few months. Don't waste your money! Here's some of the factors we consider in our testing:
The Infant Optics DXR-8 has a superior battery life to any of the other video monitors we tested, as well as a simpler monitor interface that's more intuitive and easier to navigate than those found on competitors. The range, image quality, price, and many other features are comparable with those of the best competitors. Other good qualities include a basic but secure RF connection, an ability to pair multiple cameras, and simple tactile buttons.
This is the second most expensive baby monitor on our list (coming in just under $250), and there is a lot to love about it. First, it has the Samsung reliability and quality control, making it a long-lasting baby monitor that isn't likely to drop signals in the middle of the night. Second, it has a large 5" display with high definition 720p resolution. Third, it has the two-way intercom that allows you to not only hear but also to speak to your baby. Fourth, it has automatic voice activation so if your baby fusses or says something, the screen will turn on and alert you that something's up. It also has a pan-tilt-zoom camera, selectable music/lullabies and a night light on the camera (you can turn on/off remotely), and is expandable up to 4 cameras with just the one display. With all these awesome features, why is it second on our list? In our side-by-side comparison of the Infant Optics and this Samsung, we found the Infant Optics to come out ahead in several regards. First, let's talk about a few advantages of the Samsung: it has a larger screen than the Infant Optics, selectable music, the nightlight, and is expandable up to 4 cameras that you can view simultaneously on the single screen (you can buy the extra baby cameras here). That's a lot of great features. However, when we compare it to something like the Infant Optics that has the same price, there are several disadvantages relative to the Infant Optics and other baby monitors on this list. First, even though Samsung SEW3043W Brightview HD monitor touts a robust 900-ft range, we noticed that when we went outside the signal dropped repeatedly in our back or front yards; it was quite good, however, when going up to the third floor or basement while still inside the house. So there are some definite limitations on the range and signal connectivity. Second, the Infant Optics has the baby room temperature monitor, which we found useful during a few summer nights when we didn't realize how warm it was getting in the baby's room. Third, even though the Infant Optics screen is smaller, we found it to be a bit faster and more responsive as a touch screen, and a bit brighter as a monitor. The two night vision capabilities were about the same. With all these limitations, we're surprised that the Samsung is quite a bit more expensive than the Infant Optics.
Our testers preferred the Baby Delight’s parent unit — its buttons were more responsive than Angelcare and it was easier to set up. This movement monitor uses a cordless magnetic sensor instead of a pad. Because the sensor is clipped onto your baby’s onesie, right next to their chest, the alarm won’t go off if you forget to disarm it before a middle-of-the-night feeding.
The Nest boasts some impressive hardware specs, such as true 1080p/30fps video and a 3-megapixel camera sensor. Setting up the Nest Cam specifically to look in on a 2-year-old at night, we found the video quality on Nest's camera to be sharper and more detailed than on any baby video monitor we tested. The Nest Cam includes push-to-talk features as well as alerts triggered by motion or sounds. And when your child is past the age when you need a nighttime monitor, you can repurpose the Nest Cam to check in on other parts of your home.
This is the baby monitor that everybody wants to love, with its unique and cute style, its wifi capability, and its huge list of awesome features. The iBaby M7 is the newest addition to the iBaby Care line of wifi baby monitors, released in 2018 and slowly gaining traction and popularity among discerning parents. It builds upon the popular M6S baby monitor by adding a few features, including support for both 2.4GHz and 5.0GHz wifi signals (dual band), a moonlight soother projection system, air quality sensor, and diaper and feeding time alerts. When we setup the camera and installed the app on our Andoid device (also compatible with Apple iOS), we first had some difficulty getting the camera to connect. It turns out that our camera was too far from our wireless router - the manufacturer recommends that the camera is within about 15-25 feet of the router or it will have a poor connection. As a little hint, there is a black reset button on the back of the camera, and if you hold it down for about 45 seconds you'll hear a little jingle and that will reset it. We needed to use that trick to get it working. Once we got it working, it was easy to add the iBaby camera to the app and we were off to the races. And we were impressed with all the features. You could play lullabies, music, white noise, and even bedtime stories like Mother Goose (though the Jack be Nimble option wasn't so calming for bedtime!); you can even add your own music to the options, which is a really cool capability. Up on top of the camera is a little projector that will beam the "moonlight soother" projection onto the ceiling; it can be still, rotating, or off completely. Another hint is that the "help" button on the camera unit will actually turn the projector on or off when you don't have your mobile device. Additional features include motion alerts, temperature and air quality alerts, and diaper and feeding alerts (which once we set up, were actually pretty useful rather than having them on a different app). Speaking of the app, we actually liked it quite a bit - it was intuitive, reliable, and easy to use. Multiple users can access it simultaneously from different devices (use the "Invite & View Users" option), and the same app can be used to cycle between different iBaby cameras you have set up around the house (even the older M6 model can also be added). We thought the video quality was very good, it uses high definition and its night vision was clearer than many of the other options on this list. You can have your device's screen off and the app will prompt an alert when there is noise or movement, so you don't need to keep your phone's screen on all night. The app also lets you save photos and videos to your device, and you can be confident with its security because it's streaming encrypted to the state-of-the-art Amazon AWS servers. So we said it's the baby monitor everyone wants to love, and it should be clear why - the features are truly remarkable, especially for a wifi baby monitor that is only about $170. The only major downfall of this wifi camera system is the connectivity: you need to have it very close to your home's router for it to get a good connection, and it can be finicky with connectivity at times. Once it's connected, we were really happy with it, but it did intermittently disconnect at times which was definitely frustrating. So overall, this is a feature-rich wifi baby monitor that has some great things going for it, and is worthy of this spot on our list. Once they get the connectivity issues fully resolved, this will definitely creep up higher on our list. Interested? You can check out the iBaby Care M7 Baby Monitor here.
With the VTech VM342-2 Camera Video Monitor's 170-degree wide-angle lens, parents can use multiple viewing options to get a panoramic view of their baby's nursery. This high-resolution LCD monitor also has automatic infrared night vision to check on babies without waking them. Plus, it has four calming sounds and five lullabies to help babies get to sleep on their own.
Long Range: Monitors that don’t connect to WiFi have a limited range, usually around 600 to 1,000 feet. While this is large enough for all but the biggest houses, we asked our testers to find out how far they could wander away — and how many walls they could put between them and the baby unit — before they went out of range, as well as to report back on what happened when they did. Sometimes there was an alarm or a notification, but other times the screen simply froze.
We tested and compared 9 of the most popular video monitors in this review using a comprehensive series of tests with continued use over several months. Our tests were designed to provide you with the information you need to make an informed decision on which product is right for your family and needs. Each monitor is scored based on performance experienced during our hands-on, side-by-side testing process. The test results determine the metric scores, and those scores combine to create overall scores and rank. Metric scores are derived from our in-house lab and user experience "in the field." Overall scores were weighted with a preference for the range, video quality, and sound clarity.
We got our hands on this KX-HN3001W Panasonic baby monitor in late 2018 for testing, and we were pleasantly surprised with its features, reliability, image quality, and competitive cost. Panasonic has been in the video baby monitor market for many years, and they have consistently improved the quality and reliability of their products along the way. Remember how reliable those old Panasonic DECT cordless phones were when you were a kid? You could drop them, discharge them, lose them in the couch pillows, walk them to the other side of the house, and slam them down for a dramatic ending to a phone call. These devices reminded us of those, mostly out of nostalgia, but also because the portable receiver seemed very well made and reliable. Out of the box, it comes with the color monitor receiver along with a battery and wall plug, the camera and a wall plug, and a wall-mount for the camera. We didn't realize it comes with a wall-mount and were excited to give that a shot. During setup, we mounted the camera to the wall of our test nursery and aimed it at the crib. Once it's mounted to the wall, you can still tilt and pivot it around to get a good pointing direction. Powering it on, it connected quickly to the camera unit; note that you can add two extra camera units as well, and view/control them from the same receiver (those extra cameras aren't available for sale yet). We first tested it during the daytime, and found the color screen to be clear and vivid, the connection to be reliable and relatively long-range (it worked in our back yard), and the battery life to be about 3 hours with the screen on (and unplugged obviously). It goes for much longer in stand-by mode with the screen turned off. During the nighttime, the monochrome night vision worked reasonably well. We found that it worked better if the camera unit was placed relatively close to the crib so you don't have to zoom in and lose image quality. The night vision wasn't on par with the higher-rated baby monitors on this list, but it was pretty decent. After getting the basics down, we tried out some of the cool features. It has a 2-way talk feature that actually sounded pretty good, little melodies and lullabies (or white noise!) you could play to your baby, and the life-changing remote pan/zoom/tilt. That last feature is really a necessity for modern baby cameras so you don't have to tip-toe into your baby's room and try to change the camera angle because it got bumped during the day or your baby decided to sleep on the other side of the crib. The other awesome thing about this baby monitor is that it has room temperature alerts, which allows you to set a safe range (like 68 to 72 degrees) and then it will alert you if the nursery room's temperature ever goes out of that range. There is also a little current temperature indicator on the screen, which is a nice touch. It also has a great stand-by mode that will keep the monitor off until it senses movement or hears your baby (you can set which of these you want to trigger an alert), at which point the device will alert you and turn on. This is great for a few reasons, but mostly because it helps keep battery life up to about 10 hours when kept on stand-by mode. A little extra feature is that you can set the device to automatically turn on a melody or white noise when your baby moves or makes noise - nice touch. A couple more things we noticed. First, the portable device uses micro-USB for charging, which means that you can use most phone or device charger with the same connector type (but not an iPhone charger!). That was convenient for when you're in another room and just want to quickly plug it in, just like you would with your phone. Second, on the bottom of the camera there is the standard tripod screw hole, so you can set it up on any tripod type of device (like those little ones that attach to walls, grip onto crib rails, etc). So there's some really great stuff going on here, and we are very happy to have tested it for inclusion on this list! But there are also some downfalls. First, it is built to control more than one camera, but as of late 2018 we haven't seen the additional cameras available on the market. Second, the night vision isn't up to par with the Infant Optics or other top-rated baby cameras; in fact that was the biggest challenge with this baby monitor, and we are patiently waiting for Panasonic to release a new version with better quality night vision. Third, the display is clearly not high definition, but to be fair the screen isn't really large enough to notice any pixelation. Other that that, you're getting a fantastic baby monitor for only about $120, and that's a lot of bang for the buck! Interested? You can check out the Panasonic Video Baby Monitor here.
Just because you’re pulling double diaper duty doesn’t mean you need to buy two baby monitors. If you’re a twin mom, simply look for a monitor that can accommodate add-on cameras. The Babysense Video Monitor comes with two digital cameras right out of the box (and can handle up to four), making this the best baby monitor for twins. With the push of a button, you can toggle between views of your twin babes. Plus, this monitor features digital pan/tilt and zoom, two-way communication, room temperature monitoring and a 900-foot range.
The video on its handheld unit is sharp and consistent, and even with 30 feet between the camera and the handheld unit, there wasn’t lag or interruption in the video. In addition, you can use the handheld unit to remotely point the camera at different parts of the room. Although you can't record video or take pictures with the DXR-8, these aren’t important features for a baby monitor. Setup is incredibly easy. After charging the handheld unit overnight, we plugged in the camera and it instantly connected. There was a slight lag in the video when the camera and handheld unit were 50 feet apart, which is why it only scored 90 percent in our connection test, but that’s still better than other baby monitors we reviewed. In our battery life test, the monitor lasted 10 hours – only one other model has a battery that lasts this long. This video baby monitor doesn't have Wi-Fi, but that's not a problem. Our top Wi-Fi monitor, the Philips Avent, is more expensive and didn't perform as well as the DXR-8 in our tests. This baby camera has swappable lenses for telephoto and wide-angle views. It also has invisible infrared LEDs that let you see your baby in complete darkness without waking them. The DXR-8 doesn't have a nightlight or lullabies to comfort your baby, but those exclusions don't make this baby monitor any less impressive. The warranty on the DXR-8 only lasts a year, compared to the two-year warranty on the Philips Avent.
The Nest Cam Indoor Wi-Fi and the LeFun C2 720P Wi-Fi came in a close second to the iBaby M6S Wi-Fi for features, both scoring an 8 of 10. Because these cameras are designed more with surveillance in mind and are not solely marketed for baby, they have several features that make parents lives easier, but not anything fancy and fun for baby. They do offer 2-way communication, but no lullabies or environmental sensors. Given that many parents already have "noise makers" (aka lullabies) covered by way of another product, the lack of this feature isn't a deal breaker in our book. So while these Wi-Fi cameras lacked the gadgetry fun of humidity sensing and the other bells of the iBaby M6S Wi-Fi, they still got the job of monitoring done in a way that is easy for parents to use. The bonus of the Nest Cam Indoor Wi-Fi camera is that it can be used for multiple applications when baby gets older and no longer needs an overnight monitor. This monitor can easily shift for use as a nanny cam, security, or pet camera. We think this takes the sting (if there is some) out of its lack of baby fun features, which in the end, most parents usually stop using when the novelty wears off.
However, a closer look at the flaws noted in the iBaby’s negative reviews—currently, one-star reviews make up roughly 25 percent of the total—pushed us even further toward the Infant Optics as the one we’d choose for a similar price. The app is pretty poorly done. You may lose a connection even with a perfect Wi-Fi signal. Some people report never being able to connect to it at all. The plug on this unit is an odd 2-piece design that is unnecessarily complicated (but it can be fairly easily replaced with another basic 5V charger if you want). All told, the M6S comes close to the functionality of the Infant Optics pick in some ways, and the ability to access the camera remotely is a huge plus, but all the other drawbacks are too much to overlook.
In addition to monitoring your kids, you can use the camera’s two-way talk to soothe your child (smart for when you sleep train), and it also comes with Intelligent Motion Alerts to let you know if something’s happening in the room. You can also choose to record video footage on an SD card (not included) if you want to use this product as a nanny cam.
The Philips Avent DECT SCD570/10 is a sleek looking, quality sound device that has a more extended range than much of the sound competition. It has a battery life of over 30 hours and excellent sound clarity for true-to-life sounds. The nursery unit has a nightlight, lullabies, mic sensitivity function, and a 2way talk to baby feature providing the most popular features for today's demanding parents.
With more than 24,000 Amazon reviewers giving this monitor a near five-star rating, we’re proud to include the Infant Optics DXR-8 video baby monitor on our list of best baby monitors. Parents rave about its crystal-clear picture in both light and darkness, and the interchangeable wide-angle lens for larger viewing areas (sold separately). Not only that, the DXR-8 has the ability to pan and zoom across baby’s room without parents having to enter the room and move or adjust the camera. We think these features make the Infant Optics DXR-8 the best video baby monitor.
Since 2016, we've looked at and tested the video, audio, connection, ease of use and battery life on 13 video baby monitors. When we finished our tests, we concluded that the Infant Optics DXR-8 is the overall best video baby monitor because it was the top performer is each of our tests. The DXR-8 has outstanding video and audio quality that no other baby camera matches, and it is also the easiest to use. It’s more expensive than most other models, but the quality you get is well worth it.
This is a light or beeping sound that lets you know that you've reached the monitor's range limit. If you have a model without this feature, static might be the only indication that you're out of range. (A monitor's range can vary due to your home's size, its construction materials, and other factors.) The greater the range, the better--especially if you plan to take your monitor outside.
We were also disappointed that the Angelcare’s parent unit lacks an out-of-range warning. If you’re in the backyard or basement and the monitor disconnects, it’s not clear whether you’re looking at a napping baby or a frozen screen. Still, it beat out the Baby Delight for sound and video quality and offers a few customizable features: You can adjust the volume on the baby unit as well as the parent unit, and set up timed alarms and temperature alerts.
Baby's exposure could potentially be even lower if parents place the camera on a wall at least 15 feet from baby (a distance still good for night vision to work properly with most monitors). Given the sensitivity of baby's developing systems we recommend placing the monitor as far away from the baby as possible while still being able to utilize the night vision as intended and see baby's face to determine if they are awake or sleeping at a glance. For most of the products, this distance is between 10-15 feet from the baby.
Both Baldwin and Kay recommend iBaby’s M6S Wi-Fi video monitor for its design and ease of use. Resembling a little robot, the iBaby offers 360-degree views and 110-degree tilt, 1080p video with night vision, and even comes equipped with lullabies. Other features include temperature, humidity, and air-quality sensors, which Baldwin admits are bells and whistles, but could be useful depending on what kind of parent you are. And, of course, everything comes straight through to your smartphone or tablet, which can also remotely control settings. And while some parents may be concerned about potential hacking of Wi-Fi monitors, Baldwin found that the risk is fairly low and usually occurred in cheap, off-brand models.